A. M. Kopp, D. L. Orlovskyi


Context. Today, most organizations represent knowledge about their activities from a business processes point of view. At the same time,
business process modeling is a subjective activity, which leads to errors associated with an analyst competence or i.e. with a poorly detailed
subject area description. Thus, business process models should be analyzed for various kinds of shortcomings before they used for collecting, storing, and sharing of the organizational knowledge.
Objective. The objective of the study is to develop an approach to the analysis and optimization of business process models used to
represent the organizational knowledge.
Method. A formal representation of business process models, based on directed graphs, has been considered in this study. Business process
models design rules have been considered and formalized. A coefficient of business process models structural conformity to the design rules,
which is based on the graphs redundancy characteristic and the business process models balancing coefficient, has been proposed. A formal
approach to forming business process models enhancement recommendations has been proposed with considering the formalized design rules and the coefficient of structural conformity.
Results. Calculations for models of products purchase and sale business processes, using developed software which is implemented the
proposed approach to business process models analysis and optimization, have been performed. The design shortcomings of the considered models have been defined and the enhancement recommendations formed. Transformed models are error free and further can be used to represent organizational knowledge.
Conclusions. The proposed approach allows to define the business process models design shortcomings and to develop recommendations
for their elimination.


business process modeling; modeling notation; analysis; optimization.


Yan Z., Grefen P. W. P. J. A Framework for Business Process

Model Repositories [Text], Business Process Management

Workshops, 2010, Vol. 66, pp. 559–570. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-


Wasilewski A. Business process management suite (BPMS) market

changes 2009 – 2015 [Text], Information Systems in

Management, 2016, Vol. 5, pp. 585–592.

Curko K., Vuksic V. B., Loncar A. The Role of Business Process

Management Systems and Business Intelligence Systems in

Knowledge Management [Text], International Journal of

Computers And Communications, 2009, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 17–24.

White S. A., Miers D. BPMN modeling and reference guide:

understanding and using BPMN [Text]. Future Strategies Inc.,

, 225 p.

Kluza K., Kaczor K. Overview of BPMN model equivalences:

towards normalization of BPMN diagrams [Text], 8th Workshop

on Knowledge Engineering and Software Engineering (KESE2012)

at the at the biennial European Conference on Artificial Intelligence

(ECAI 2012): August, 2012, Vol. 28, pp. 38–45.

Jordan D., Evdemon J. Business Process Model and Notation

(BPMN) Version 2.0 [Text]. Object Management Group, 2011,


Braghetto K. R., Ferreira J. E., Vincent J. M. From business

process model and notation to stochastic automata network

[Text], Relat rio T cnico RTMAC-2011-03, Universidade S o

Paulo, 2011, Vol. 7, pp. 73.

Shapiro R., Martin M. Workflow Management Coalition Workflow

StandardProcess Definition Interface-XML Process Definition

Language [Text]. The Workflow Management Coalition, 2008, 87 p.

Zha H., Yang Y., Wang J. et al. Transforming XPDL to Petri nets

[Text], International Conference on Business Process

Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007, pp. 197–207.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-78238-4_21

Kopp A., Orlovskyi D. Razrabotka podhoda k analizu i optimizacii

diagramm potokov dannyh [Text], ScienceRise, 2017, Vol. 7,

pp. 33–42. DOI: 10.15587/2313-8416.2017.107048.

Rozman T., Polancic G., Horvat R. V. Analysis of most common

process modeling mistakes in BPMN process models [Text], 2008

BPM and Workflow Handbook, 2008, pp. 1–15.

BPMN Symbols: The 10 most common mistakes to avoid

[Electronic resource]. – Access mode:


G mez-L pez M. T., P rez- lvarez J. M., Varela-Vaca A. J.,

Gasca R. M. et al. Guiding the Creation of Choreographed Processes

with Multiple Instances Based on Data Models [Text],

International Conference on Business Process Management.

Springer, Cham, 2016, pp. 239–251. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-


Roa J., Reynares E., Caliusco M. L., Villarreal P. et al.] Ontology-

Based Heuristics for Process Behavior: Formalizing False Positive

Scenarios [Text], International Conference on Business Process

Management. Springer, Cham, 2016, pp. 106–117. DOI: 10.1007/


Dijkman R. M., Dumas M., Ouyang C. Semantics and analysis of

business process models in BPMN [Text], Information and

Software technology, 2008, Vol. 50, No. 12, pp. 1281–1294.

DOI: 10.1016/j.infsof.2008.02.006

Dijkman R. M., Dumas M., Ouyang C. Formal semantics and analysis of BPMN process models using Petri nets [Text], Queensland

University of Technology, Tech. Rep, 2007, pp. 1–30.

Kalenkova A. A., van der Aalst W., M. de Leoni Discovering,

analyzing and enhancing BPMN models using ProM [Text],

Proceedings of the BPM Demo sessions 2014 Co-located with

th International Conference on Business Process Management

(BPM2014) Eindhoven, The Netherlands, September 10, 2014,

CEUR-WS. org, 2014, pp. 36–40.

Jung M., Kim H. S., Jo M. H., Tak K. H, Cha H. S., Son J. H.

Mapping from BPMN-Formed Business Processes to XPDL

Business Processes [Text], ICEB, 2004, pp. 422–427.

Kopp A. M., Orlovskyi D. L. Ob odnom podhode k resheniju

zadachi optimizacii struktury biznes-processov predprijatija

[Tekst], Visnyk NTU «HPI». Serija: Systemnyj analiz, upravlinnja

ta informacijni tehnologii’, 2015, No. 58, pp. 102–108.

Kluza K., Nalepa G. J. Proposal of square metrics for measuring

business process model complexity [Text], Computer Science

and Information Systems (FedCSIS), 2012 Federated Conference

on.,IEEE, 2012, pp. 919–922.

Cardoso J. Business process control-flow complexity: Metric,

evaluation, and validation [Text], International Journal of Web

Services Research, 2008, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 49.

Analiz predmetnoj oblasti oborota rabochej konstruktorskoj

dokumentacii [Jelektronnyj resurs]. Rezhim dostupa: http://

Zamjatina O. M. Modelirovanie sistem: uchebnoe posobie [Tekst].

Tomsk, Izd-vo TPU, 2009, 204 p.

Van der Aalst W. M. P. Patterns and xpdl: A critical evaluation of

the xml process definition language [Text], BPM Center report

BPM-03-09, BPMcenter. org, 2003, pp. 1–30.

Shirokov L. A. Issledovanie sistem upravlenija: uchebnoe posobie

[Tekst]. Moscow, MGIU, 2010, 168 p.

GOST Style Citations

Copyright (c) 2018 A. M. Kopp, D. L. Orlovskyi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Address of the journal editorial office:
Editorial office of the journal «Radio Electronics, Computer Science, Control»,
National University "Zaporizhzhia Polytechnic", 
Zhukovskogo street, 64, Zaporizhzhia, 69063, Ukraine. 
Telephone: +38-061-769-82-96 – the Editing and Publishing Department.

The reference to the journal is obligatory in the cases of complete or partial use of its materials.