SELECTING THE PREFERRED ALGORITHM FOR THE EMBEDDING OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS INTO VIDEOFILES
Context. Recently, the number of attacks on intellectual property has increased significantly, which, according to the polls,
occupies a leading position in the structure of modern society. The comprehensive development of the country is impossible without
generating its own intellectual data and their protection, which, in the face of information wars, is the most urgent task in modern
society. Since intellectual data must not only be generated and stored, but also transmitted through open communication channels, the
importance and urgency of the study of the stability of methods for protecting intellectual data to the effect of interference in
channels is increasing. This work is dedicated to solving this urgent task.
Objective – definition of a steganographic algorithm for hiding a digital watermark in a video container optimal for performance
criteria, resistance to attacks, concealment and bandwidth using software simulation and hierarchy analysis method.
Method. The algorithms for embedding of digital watermarks in a moving image are considered. Recently, much attention has
been paid to embedding algorithms that have properties such as resistance to attacks and the concealment of embedded information.
These algorithms can be classified by the type of area in which the digital watermark is embedded or seized, their bandwidth, realtime
performance, and resistance to specific attack types. Existing embedding algorithms in a video can be conventionally divided
into three main groups, depending on the area in which the embedded digital watermark: embedding methods in the spatial domain,
in the region of transformation, and embedding methods in video compressed by the MPEG standard. The embedding algorithms of
the digital watermark in the spatial area are used for uncompressed video. The embedding digital watermark is usually added to the
brightness component and some color components, or only to the color components. In embedding algorithms in the transformation
region, the watermark is distributed over the transformation region and difficult to remove after embedding. For methods in the field
of transformation, there are several classes of methods based on different transformation functions, the main of which are the discrete
cosine transform, discrete wavelet transform and discrete Fourier transform.
Results. As a result of calculations the choice of the preferred algorithm of concealment of digital watermarks in a video file was
Conclusions. In this article, a hierarchy analysis method is used to determine the preferred algorithm for integrating information
into video files according to a combination of quality indicators. The preferred algorithm is obtained on the basis of existing matrices
of comparisons of the relative importance of quality indicators and the results of software modeling of steganographic embedding
algorithms in video files. If the bandwidth was chosen as the prevailing criterion, the best method based on this criterion is provided
by a method based on the LSB, which is enhanced by the additional use of the Hamming code with the value of the priority vector
0.24. When the resistance to attacks was used as the predominant criterion, the results of the studies showed the effectiveness of the
discrete wavelet transform method with the possibility of embedding 2 bits of the digital watermark in the DCT block into the
frequency domain of LH. The scientific novelty of the work is that for the first time the method of embedding in the video file was
prevailing on the criteria of speed, bandwidth and resistance to interference in communication channels, and the theory of concealing
information in video files was further developed by increasing the noise immunity of existing algorithms.
The practical significance of the work is determined by the applicability of the investigated algorithms for protecting intellectual
property on video products transmitted by channels of communication with the obstacles, the solution of this problem is an actual
problem in the modern world.
Full Text:PDF (Українська)
Gribunin V. G. Digital Steganography. Moscow, Solon-press,
, 272 p.
Konakhovich G. F., Puzyrenko A. U. Computer steganography. Theory and Practice. Кiev, MK-Press, 2006, 288 p.
Essaouabi A., Ibnelhaj E., Regragu F. A. Waveletbased object watermarking system for mpeg4 video, International Journal of Computer Science and Security, 2010, Vol. 3, Issue 6, P. 448.
Nikolaidis N., Pitas I. Robust image watermarking in the spatial domain, Signal Processing, Special Issue on Copyright Protection and Control, 1998, Vol. 66, No. 3, pp. 385–403.
Arena S., Caramma M. Digital watermarking applied to
MPEG2 coded video sequence exploiting space and frequency
masking, Proceedings International Conference on Image Processing, 2000, Vol. 3, pp. 438–441.
Koch E., Zhao J. Towards Robust and Hidden Image Copyright Labeling, IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing, 1995, Vol. 1, pp. 123–132.
Langelaar G., Setyawan I., Lagendijk R. Watermarking Digital Image and Video Data, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2000, Vol. 17, pp. 20–43.
Hartung F., Girod B. Watermarking of Uncompressed and
Compressed Video, Signal Processing, 1998, Vol. 66, No. 3.
Shostak N., Astrakhantsev A., Romanko S. Сomparative analysis of effectiveness video watermarking techniques, Science of Europe, 2017, Vol. 15, pp. 92–95.
Bezruk V. M., Chebotaryova D. V., Skoruk J. V. Multi-criteria analysis and choice of means of telecommunications. Xar’kov, SMIT, 2017, 268 p.
GOST Style Citations
М. : СОЛОН-Пресс, 2002. – 272 с.
2. Конахович Г. Ф. Компьютерная стеганография. Теория и
практика / Г. Ф. Конахович, А. Ю. Пузыренко. – К. : МК-
Пресс, 2006. – 288 с.
3. Essaouabi A. Waveletbased object watermarking system for
mpeg4 video / A. Essaouabi, E. Ibnelhaj, F.A. Regragu // International
Journal of Computer Science and Security. – 2010. –
Vol. 3, Issue 6. – P. 448.
4. Nikolaidis N. Robust image watermarking in the spatial domain
/ N. Nikolaidis, I. Pitas // Signal Processing, Special Issue on
Copyright Protection and Control. – 1998. – Vol. 66, № 3. –
5. Arena S. Digital watermarking applied to MPEG2 coded video
sequence exploiting space and frequency masking / S. Arena,
M. Caramma // Proceedings International Conference on Image
Processing. – 2000. – Vol. 3. – P. 438–441.
6. Koch E. Towards Robust and Hidden Image Copyright Labeling
/ E. Koch, J. Zhao // IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Signal
and Image Processing. – 1995. – Vol. 1. – P. 123–132.
7. Langelaar G. Watermarking Digital Image and Video Data / G.
Langelaar, I. Setyawan, R. Lagendijk // IEEE Signal Processing
Magazine. – 2000. – Vol 17. – P. 20–43.
8. Hartung F. Watermarking of Uncompressed and Compressed
Video / F. Hartung, B. Girod // Signal Processing. – 1998. –
Vol. 66, № 3. – P. 283–301.
9. Shostak N. Сomparative analysis of effectiveness video watermarking
techniques / N. Shostak, A. Astrakhantsev,
S. Romanko // Science of Europe. – 2017. – Vol. 15. – P. 92–
10. Безрук В. М. Многокритериальный анализ и выбор средств
телекоммуникаций / В. М. Безрук, Д. В. Чеботарева,
Ю. В. Скорик. – Х. : СМИТ, 2017. – 268 с.
Copyright (c) 2018 N. V. Shostak, V. M. Bezruk, A. A. Astrakhantsev
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Address of the journal editorial office:
Editorial office of the journal «Radio Electronics, Computer Science, Control»,
Zaporizhzhya National Technical University,
Zhukovskiy street, 64, Zaporizhzhya, 69063, Ukraine.
Telephone: +38-061-769-82-96 – the Editing and Publishing Department.
The reference to the journal is obligatory in the cases of complete or partial use of its materials.