THE RELIABILITY IMPROVING OF COMPUTER SYSTEM ELEMENTS WITH USING MODULAR ENCODING
Keywords:computing system, element, reliability, diagnostics, modular coding, module, deduction, reliability indicators, error detection probability, simulation, circuit, built-in control
Context. Computing systems are implemented in many industries and economies of the modern world. The quality indicators of the systems in which they are used depend on the reliability of their work. The reliability of a computing system consists of the reliability of the construction and functioning of its elements. It is not always possible to ensure reliability in the design by choosing a high-quality element base, structural redundancy, or other well-known methods. Therefore, important and critical elements of computing systems are protected by built-in control schemes. They allow you to detect errors that occur when performing basic data operations. An effective way of constructing such circuits is to use actions on the remainder of the division of the operands by a selected module or by several modules (modular coding). Especially the task of choosing the most accurate and least redundant means of control is relevant for a wide range of basic elements of modern computing systems.
Objective. The aim of the work is research and development of recommendations on the use of modular coding to improve the reliability of the functioning of elements of modern computing systems in various hardware and software basis.
Methods. A method for numerical control of the correctness of performing basic arithmetic and logical operations by computing devices is selected and analyzed. On its basis, a schematic model of a computing system was built and verified in the MatLab Simulink environment, which uses modular coding as a means of ensuring the reliability of the functioning of elements. The analysis of the probabilistic characteristics of decision-making is carried out, estimates of the probability of an erroneous decision-making are given. A software implementation of the simulation algorithm in the Visual Basic for Applications environment has been created, which made it possible to plot the dependence of reliability indicators on coding parameters.
Results. A schematic model of a computing system has been developed. It allows study various combinations of faults in the functioning of elements and errors in their operations. An algorithm for simulating all kinds of malfunctions and errors in the functioning of elements of computing systems when they perform basic operations is implemented in software. The qualitative dependences of the probabilistic characteristics of reliability on the coding parameters are determined. Based on the analysis of the characteristics obtained, conclusions are drawn and practical recommendations are given on the use of modular coding in the elements of computing systems in order to achieve the specified reliability indicators.
Conclusions. To improve the reliability of the functioning of the elements of computing systems, it is effective to use built-in control schemes using modular coding. Taking into account the recommendations for choosing the parameters of the codes will ensure the required reliability with minimal redundancy of circuits and the computational complexity of the calculation algorithms.
State Standard 27.002–1989. Industrial product Dependability. General concepts. Terms and definitions. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 1990. 24 p. (In Russian).
Jha N. K., Wang, S. J. Design and synthesis of self-checking VLSI circuits, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2013, Vol. 12 (6), pp. 878–887. DOI: 10.1109/43.229762.
Kon E. L., Freyman V. I. The theory of telecommunications. The noise stability data transmission within information and control and telecommunication systems: models, algorithms, structures. Perm, Perm State Technical University, 2007, 317 p.
Fink L. M. Signals, noise, errors. Radio and communication, 1984, 256 p.
Freyman V., Bezukladnikov I. Research and application of noise stability providing methods at information and control systems, 2017 IEEE Conference of Russian young researchers in electrical and electronic engineering : 1–3 February 2017 : proceedings. Saint-Petersburg, SaintPetersburg Electrotechnical University «LETI», 2017, pp. 831–837.
Kubalik P., Kubatova H. Parity Codes Used for On-Line Testing in FPGA, Acta Polytechnika, 2005, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 53–59.
Sklar B. Digital communications. Fundamentals and applications : second edition. New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 2001, 1079 p.
Hazewinkel M. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Springer, 2001, 488 p.
Chiranjeevi G. N., Kulkarni S. Pipeline Architecture for N=K*2L Bit Modular ALU: Case Study between Current Generation Computing and Vedic Computing, Convergence in Technology (I2CT), IEEE 6th International Conference, Mumbai, India, 02–04 April 2021. Mumbai, IEEE, 2021, pp. 1–4. DOI: 10.33130/AJCT.2021v07i01.007.
Kumar A. A., Makur A. Improved coding-theoretic and subspace-based decoding algorithms for a wider class of DCT and DST codes, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2010, Vol. 58, Issue 2, pp. 695–708.
Zeng H., Li W., Chen T., Nan L. An Efficient Module Arithmetic Logic Unit in Dual Field for Internet of Things Applications, Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) : IEEE 14th International Conference, Kunming, China, 26–29 October 2021, proceedings. Kunming, IEEE, 2021, pp. 1–4. DOI: 10.1109/ASICON52560.2021.9620531.
Plantard T. Efficient Word Size Modular Arithmetic, Computer Arithmetic (ARITH) : IEEE 28th Symposium, Lyngby, Denmark, 14–16 June 2021 : proceedings. Lyngby, IEEE, 2021, pp. 139–139. DOI: 10.1109/ARITH51176.2021.00036.
Ahmadifar H., Jaberipur G. Improved modulo-(2n ± 3) multipliers, Computer Architecture and Digital Systems (CADS), 17th CSI International Symposium, Tehran, 30–31 October 2013. Tehran, IEEE, 2013, pp. 31–35. 10.1109/CADS.2013.6714234.
Blahut R. E. Theory and practice of error control codes. Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Incorporated, 1986, 576 p.
Freyman V. Research of the Reed-Solomon codes characteristic for realization within control systems devices, Radio electronics, Computer science, Control, 2019, Vol. 3 (50), pp. 143–151. DOI: 10.15588/1607-3274-2019-3-16.
Viterbi A. J., Omura J. K. Principles of digital communication and coding. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2009, 584 p.
Freyman V. I. Methods and algorithms of soft decoding for signals within information transmission channels between control systems elements, Radio Electronics, Computer Science, Control, 2018, Vol. 4, pp. 226–235. DOI: 10.15588/1607–3274–2018–4–22.
Freyman V. Analysis of the transmission reliability between control systems devices when errors are packaged, Radio electronics, Computer science, Control, 2019, Vol. 4 (51), pp. 223–231. DOI: 10.15588/1607-3274-2019-4-21.
Morelos-Zaragoza R. The art of error correcting. Malden, Wiley, 2006, 269 p.
Bhargava K. Efficient implementation of error correction coding in a communication system by using VHDL, VSRD International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Communication Engineering, 2012, Vol. 2 (6), pp. 359–365.
Efanov D., Sapozhnikov V., Sapozhnikov V. Two-Modulus Codes with Summation of On-Data Bits for Technical Diagnostics of Discrete Systems, Automatic Control and Computer Sciences, 2018, Vol. 52, pp. 1–12. DOI:10.3103/S0146411618010029
MATLAB Documentation [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 V. I. Freyman
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Licensing Notifications in the Copyright Notices
The journal allows the authors to hold the copyright without restrictions and to retain publishing rights without restrictions.
The journal allows readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles.
The journal allows to reuse and remixing of its content, in accordance with a Creative Commons license СС BY -SA.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-SA that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.