• Ye. V. Levus Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukrainе, Ukraine
  • M. Yu. Morozov Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, Germany
  • R. О. Moravskyi Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine , Ukraine
  • P. Ya. Pustelnyk Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine, Ukraine



object visualization, segments, levels of detail, Bezier curves, software agents, containerization


Context. The problem of automation of the generation of natural and anthropogenic landscapes is considered. The subject of the research is methods of procedural generation of landscapes that quickly and realistically visualize natural and anthropogenic objects taking into account different levels of detail.

Objective. The goal of the work is to improve the rendering quality and efficiency of the procedural generation process of landscape surfaces at any level of detail based on the implementation of the developed method.

Method. The proposed method of visualization involves the construction of a natural landscape using Bezier curves and surfaces and manual editing of individual segments; use of software agents that are responsible for individual steps of generating anthropogenic objects; adaptation of anthropogenic objects to the characteristics of natural landscapes; containerization of three-dimensional objects, which is used in various steps to organize the storage and loading of objects efficiently. A generated heightmap based on the Perlin noise algorithm is used to construct surfaces on individual segments of the natural landscape. Landscape processing software agents are used to unify the design of algorithms for creating and processing information about anthropogenic objects. Correct application operation and error resistance is guaranteed due to the inheritance of a specific interface by all implementations of agents. Containerization with two-level caching ensures the efficiency of display detailing.

Results. The developed method is implemented programmatically, and its efficiency is investigated for different variants of input data, which to the greatest extent determine the complexity of visualization objects.

Conclusions. The conducted experiments confirmed the efficiency of the proposed algorithmic software and its viability in practice in solving problems of automated landscape generation. Prospects for further research include improvement and expansion of the algorithms for procedural landscape generation, functionality complication of manual visualized object processing, and division of individual objects into separate hierarchies of containers.

Author Biographies

Ye. V. Levus, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukrainе

PhD, Associate Professor of Software Engineering Department

M. Yu. Morozov, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Postgraduate student of the Informatics Department

R. О. Moravskyi, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine

Postgraduate student of the Software Engineering Department

P. Ya. Pustelnyk, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine

Postgraduate student of the Software Engineering Department


Doran J., Parberry I. Controlled Procedural Terrain Generation Using Software Agents, IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 2010, Vol. 2(2), pp. 111–119. DOI: 10.1109/TCIAIG.2010.2049020

Morozov M. Yu., Levus Ye. V., Moravskyj R. O., Pustelnyk P. Ya. Heneruvania landshaftiv dlia cferychnykh poverkhon: analiz zavdannia ta variant vyrishennia, Naukovui visnyk NLTU Ukraiiny, 2020, Vol. 30. No. 1, pp. 136–141. DOI: 10.36930/40300124

Biljecki F., Kumar K., Nagel C. CityGML Application Domain Extension (ADE): overview of developments, In: Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards 3.1 (Dec. 2018), P. 13. DOI: 10.1186/s40965- 018 - 0055 - 6

Gavin S. P. Muller. The definition and rendering of terrain maps/ Gavin S. P. Muller// ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, 1986, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 39–48. DOI:10.1145/15886.15890

Ebner H., Reinhardt W., and Hobler R. Generation, Management and Utilization of High Fidelity Digital Terrain Models, XVIth ISPRS Congress Technical Commission III: Mathematical Analysis of Data Supplements, 1988, Kyoto, Japan, 27(B11), pp. 556–566.

Brasebin M. S. Christophe, F. Jacquinod, A. Vinesse, and H. Mahon.3D Geovisualization & Stylization to Manage Comprehensive and Participative Local Urban Plans, In: ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences IV–2/W1, October (2016), pp. 83–91. DOI: 10.5194/isprs-annals- IV-2- W1-83-2016.

Cherradi G., El Bouziri A., Boulmakoul A., and Zeitouni K. Real-Time HazMat Environmental Information System: A micro-service based architecture, In: Procedia Computer Science,109.June (2017), pp. 982–987. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2017.05.457

Merino L., Fuchs J., Blumenschein M., Anslow C., Ghafari M., Nierstrasz O., Behrisch M., Keim D.A. On the impact of the medium in the effectiveness of 3D software visualizations, IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization (VISSOFT). Shanghai, China, 2017, pp. 11–21. DOI: 10.1109/VISSOFT.2017.17

Teng E., Bidarra R. A semantic approach to patch-based procedural generation of urban road networks, FDG '17: 12th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, August 2017, proceedings, pp. 1–10.

Burch M., Wallner G., Arends S. T. T. and Beri P. Procedural City Modeling for AR Applications, 24th International Conference Information Visualizations (IV), 2020, pp. 581–586. DOI: 10.1109/IV51561.2020.00098

Zhang X., Zhong M, Liu S, Zheng L, Chen Y., Zhang X, Zhong M, Liu S, Zheng L, Chen Y. Template-Based 3D Road Modeling for Generating Large-Scale Virtual Road Network Environment, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 2019, 8(9):364. DOI: 10.3390/ijgi8090364

Kelly G. and McCabe H. Citygen: An interactive system for procedural city generation, In Fifth International Conference on Game Design and Technology, 2007, pp. 8–16.

Dinkov D., Vatseva R.3D modelling and visualization for landscape simulation, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Cartography and GIS. Albena, 2016, pp. 320–333.

Klimke J. Döllner J. Service-oriented Visualization of Virtual 3D City Models, [Electronic resource]. Access mode: 2012. URL:

Object Container Streaming, Star Citizen, 2021. URL:

Bushnaief J., Czatrowski P. Solving Visibility and Streaming in The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt with Umbra 3, GDC Vault. 2014. URL: (data zvernennja: 22.2.2021).

Level Streaming Overview // Unreal Engine. 2021. URL:




How to Cite

Levus, Y. V., Morozov, M. Y., Moravskyi R. О., & Pustelnyk, P. Y. (2022). ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE SOFTWARE SYSTEM OF AUTOMATED NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC LANDSCAPE GENERATION. Radio Electronics, Computer Science, Control, (2), 154.



Progressive information technologies