• V. I. Sabat Ukrainian Academy of Printing, Lviv, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • L. S. Sikora Institute of Computer Sciences and Information Technologies, Lviv, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • B. V. Durnyak Ukrainian Academy of Printing, Lviv, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • I. F. Povkhan Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • V. V. Polishchuk Uzhhorod National University, Uzhgorod, Ukraine, Ukraine



technogenic systems, threats, vulnerabilities, risk assessment, decision making, control of hierarchical systems


Context. The analysis of the risk terminal flows in technogenic systems is carried out, which arise in the process of the impact of informational and cognitive threats in the automated document management system as part of the hierarchical production system.

The object of the research is the process of functioning of complex systems with a hierarchical structure, in which automated document management systems with a high level of data flow protection for decision-making are used to provide the information quality control of technological processes.

The subjects of the research are the methods and means of constructing an information protection system to ensure the reliable functioning of automated document management systems and making targeted decisions in hierarchical structures with minimal risk of exposure to external threats and attacks.

Objective is to develop a complex model for assessing the risk of the document management system failure as part of a hierarchical production system under the active threats.

Method. For the first time, the cause-and-effect diagram of the event formation with the active action of threat factors and attacks is substantiated and developed, the interpretation of risk in a technogenic system is defined, and the risk in the space of states is presented as a change in the trajectory in the system transitions to the limit operation mode. For the first time, a category diagram of the structure of risk generation under the threat factors and a system-category diagram of interaction in the system risk ↔ emergencyactive nature is constructed, a system-category scheme of risk formation under the active threat factors is suggested. For the first time, a cognitive diagram for assessing losses in the event of a risk situation arising from incorrect actions of the personnel is substantiated.

Results. As a result of the research, a system-category diagram of the impact of a set of threats on the system functioning mode and process is constructed, a method is developed for calculating the level of system strategic security of energy-active hierarchical systems in the process of attacks and threats, and a complex model for assessing the risk of a system functioning failure under active threats is suggested.

Conclusions. Under the action of active obstacles, cognitive and system factors at the operational and strategic levels of the control hierarchy, due to wrong decisions and informational disorientation, emergency situations and risks of the system function loss and its target-orientation arise. The analysis of a set of risks and the suggested category diagram of the risk generation structure under the impact of threat factors form the basis of the development of the probability structure of the risk concept based on the attack ↔ consequence model, as well as the construction of a system-category diagram of the interaction in the game active factor ↔ accident risk. This, in turn, makes it possible to construct a system-category scheme for the formation of risk terminal flows in technogenic systems that arise in the process of threat impact. A complex model for assessing the risk of system failure under threats can be used to construct protection systems for any hierarchical control structures of technogenic systems.

Author Biographies

V. I. Sabat, Ukrainian Academy of Printing, Lviv, Ukraine

PhD, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Information Multimedia Technologies

L. S. Sikora, Institute of Computer Sciences and Information Technologies, Lviv, Ukraine

Dr. Sc., Professor, Full Member of the Engineering Academy of Ukraine, Professor of the Department of Automated Control Systems

B. V. Durnyak, Ukrainian Academy of Printing, Lviv, Ukraine

Dr. Sc., Professor, Honoured Worker of Science and Technology of Ukraine, Rector

I. F. Povkhan, Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine

Dr. Sc., Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Information Technologies

V. V. Polishchuk, Uzhhorod National University, Uzhgorod, Ukraine

Dr. Sc., Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Systems Software


Shurygin A. M. Applied stochastics: robustness, estimation, forecast. Moscow, Finance and statistics, 2000, 224 p.

Kavun S. V., Nosov V. V., Manzhai O. V. Information security. Tutorial. Kharkiv, PH. KhNEU, 2008, 352 p.

Veretilnyk T. I., Mysnyk L. D., Mysnyk B. V., Kapitan R. B. Organization of publishing and printing activities: Tutorial Cherkasy. Cherkasy, State Technology University, 2020, 157 p. [Electronic resource] ATION OF%20POLIGRAPHIC%20ACTIVITY.pdf

Kovaleva V. V., Samarin Yu. N. Selection of management system for a printing company, CompuArt. Journal for printers and publishers, 2007, No. 11, pp. 61–64.

Honcharov S. V. Financial security of the securities market of Ukraine. Poltava, Poltava State Agrarian Academy, 2019, pp. 40–42.

Schneier Bruce. Applied cryptography. Protocols, algorithms, source texts in C language. 2nd edition. Moscow, Triumf, 2002, 816 p.

Michael S., Andrew H. Practical Malware Analysis: The Hands – On Guide to Dissecting Malicious Software; translated from English. Chernikov S., St. Petersburg, 2018, 786 p.

Koval L. H., Zlepko S. M., Novitskyi H. M., Krekoten E. H. Methods and technologies of biometric identification according to the results of literary sources, Scientific notes of TNU named after V.I. Vernadskyi. Vinnytsia, VNTU, 2019, Vol. 30 (69), Part 1, No. 2, pp. 104–112. [Electronic resource] 019/part_1/19.pdf.

Law of Ukraine “On electronic digital signature”, Bulletin of the Verkhovna Rada, 2003, No. 36, P. 276.

Schneider B. Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World. New-York, WCP, 2002, 368 р.

Senkivskyi V. M., Petyak Y. F., Kozak R. O., Lytovchenko O. V. Information technology for effective data protection of publishing systems on mobile devices. Lviv, UAP, 2020, 272 p.

Bobalo Y. Ya., Horbaty I. V., Bondarev A. P. Information security. Lviv, Lviv Polytechnic University, 2019, 580 p.

Durnyak B. V., Sabat V. I., Shvedova L. E. Authority control in information protection systems. Lviv, UAP, 2016, 148 p.

Sabat V. Sikora L., Durnyak B., Lysa N., Fedevych O. Information technologies of active control of complex hierarchical systems under threats and information attacks, The 3rd International Workshop on Intelligent Information Technologies & Systems of Information Security (IntelITSIS2022). Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine, May 25–27, 2022.

Kelemen M., Polishchuk V., Gavurová B., Andoga R., Szabo S., Yang W., Christodoulakis J., Gera M., Kozuba J., Kaľavský P., Antoško M. Educational Model for Evaluation of Airport NIS Security for Safe and Sustainable Air Transport. Sustainability, 2020, 12, 6352.

Milioti Christina, Kepaptsoglou Konstantinos, Deloukas Alexandros, Apostolopoulou Efthymia Valuation of manmade incident risk perception in public transport: The case of the Athens metro, International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, 2022, Vol. 11, pp. 578–588.

Sicard F., Zamai É., Flaus J. M. An approach based on behavioral models and critical states distance notion for improving cybersecurity of industrial control systems, Reliab Eng Syst Saf, 2019, Vol. 188, pp. 584–603. 10.1016/J.RESS.2019.03.020

Cormier A., Ng C. Integrating cybersecurity in hazard and risk analyses, J Loss Prev Process Ind, 2020, Vol. 64. Article 104044, 10.1016/j.jlp.2020.104044

Schmittner C., Gruber T., Puschner P., Schoitsсh E. Security application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Computer safety, reliability, and security. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014, pp. 310–325.

Vessels L., Heffner K., Johnson D. Cybersecurity risk assessment for space systems, 2019 IEEE Space Comput Conf. (SCC), 2019, pp . 11–19. 10.1109/SpaceComp.2019.00006

Domeh Vindex, Obeng Francis, Khan Faisal, Bose Neil, Sanli Elizabeth Risk analysis of man overboard scenario in a small fishing vessel, Ocean Engineering, 2021, Vol. 229, Article 108979.

Alanen Jarmo, Linnosmaa Joonas, Malm Timo, Papakonstantinou Nikolaos, Ahonen Toni, Heikkilä Eetu, Tiusanen Risto Hybrid ontology for safety, security, and dependability risk assessments and Security Threat Analysis (STA) method for industrial control systems, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 2022, Vol. 220, Article 108270.

Agrawal V. A. Comparative study on information security risk analysis methods, J Comput (Taipei), 2017, pp. 57– 67. 10.17706/jcp.12.1.57-67

Arbanas K., Čubrilo M. Ontology in information security, J Inf Org Sci, 2015, Vol. 39, pp. 107–136.

Blanco C. Lasheras J. , Fernández-Medina E. , ValenciaGarcía R. , Toval A. Basis for an integrated security ontology according to a systematic review of existing proposals, Comput Stand Interfaces, 2011, Vol. 33, pp. 372–388.

Zhou T., Modarres M., Droguett E. L. Multi-unit nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment: a comprehensive survey, Reliab Eng Syst Saf, 2021, Vol. 213. Article 107782. 10.1016/J.RESS.2021.107782

Modarres M., Zhou T., Massoud M. Advances in multi-unit nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment, Reliab Eng Syst Saf, 2017, Vol. 157, pp. 87–100. 10.1016/J.RESS.2016.08.005

Kim J., Shah A.U.A., Kang H.G. Dynamic risk assessment with bayesian network and clustering analysis, Reliab Eng Syst Saf, 2020, Vol. 201, Article 106959, 10.1016/J.RESS.2020.106959

DeJesus Segarra J., Bensi M., Modarres M. A bayesian network approach for modeling dependent seismic failures in a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment, Reliab Eng Syst Saf, 2021, Vol. 213, Article 107678. 10.1016/J.RESS.2021.107678

Rabcan J., Levashenko V., Zaitseva E., Kvassay M., Subbotin S. Application of Fuzzy Decision Tree for Signal Classification, IEEE Transactions on Industrial, 2019, No. 15(10), pp. 5425–5434.

Rabcan J., Levashenko V., Zaitseva E., Kvassay M., Subbotin S. Non-destructive diagnostic of aircraft engine blades by Fuzzy Decision Tree, Engineering Structures, 2019, No. 197, P. 109396.




How to Cite

Sabat, V. I., Sikora, L. S., Durnyak, B. V., Povkhan, I. F., & Polishchuk, V. V. (2023). ANALYSIS OF RISK TERMINAL FLOWS IN TECHNOGENIC SYSTEMS ARISING IN THE PROCESS OF THREAT IMPACT . Radio Electronics, Computer Science, Control, (1), 155.



Control in technical systems