• V. Yu. Kashtan Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine , Ukraine
  • V. V. Hnatushenko Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine , Ukraine



extraction, water bodies, optical satellite images, water spectral indices, machine learning, Kappa coefficient, Pearson coefficient, confusion matrix


Context. Given the aggravation of environmental and water problems, there is a need to improve automated methods for extracting and monitoring water bodies in urban ecosystems. The problem of efficient and automated extraction of water bodies is becoming relevant given the large amount of data obtained from satellite systems. The object of study is water bodies that are automatically extracted from Sentinel-2 optical satellite images using machine learning methods.

Objective. The goal of the work is to improve the efficiency of the process of extracting the boundaries of water bodies on digital optical satellite images by using machine learning methods.

Method. The paper proposes an automated information technology for delineating the boundaries of water bodies on Sentinel-2 digital optical satellite images. The process includes eight stages, starting with data download and using topographic maps to obtain basic information about the study area. Then, the process involved data pre-processing, which included calibrating the images, removing atmospheric noise, and enhancing contrast. Next, the EfficientNet-B0 architecture is applied to identify water features, facilitating optimal network width scaling, depth, and image resolution. ResNet blocks compress and expand channels. It allows for optimal connectivity of large-scale and multi-channel links across layers. After that, the Regional Proposal Network defines regions of interest (ROI), and ROI alignment ensures data homogeneity. The Fully connected layer helps in segmenting the regions, and the Fully connected network creates binary masks for accurate identification of water bodies. The final step of the method is to analyze spatial and temporal changes in the images to identify differences, changes, and trends that may indicate specific phenomena or events. This approach allows automating and accurately identifying water features on satellite images using machine learning.

Results. The implementation of the proposed technology is development through Python software development. An assessment of the technology’s accuracy, conducted through a comparative analysis with existing methods, such as water indices and K-means, confirms a high level of accuracy in the period from 2017 to 2023 (up to 98%). The Kappa coefficient, which considers the degree of consistency between the actual and predicted classification, confirms the stability and reliability of our approach, reaching a value of 0.96.

Conclusions. The experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed automated information technology and allow us to recommend it for use in studies of changes in coastal areas, decision-making in the field of coastal resource management, and land use. Prospects for further research may include new methods that seasonal changes and provide robustness in the selection and mapping of water surfaces.

Author Biographies

V. Yu. Kashtan, Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine

PhD, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of Department of Information Technology and Computer Engineering

V. V. Hnatushenko, Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine

Dr. Sc., Professor, Head of Department of Information Technology and Computer Engineering


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How to Cite

Kashtan, V. Y., & Hnatushenko, V. V. (2024). MACHINE LEARNING FOR AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF WATER BODIES USING SENTINEL-2 IMAGERY . Radio Electronics, Computer Science, Control, (1), 118.



Neuroinformatics and intelligent systems