Radio Electronics, Computer Science, Control 2021-04-02T13:45:29+00:00 Sergey A. Subbotin Open Journal Systems <p dir="ltr" align="justify"><strong>Description:</strong> The scientific journal «Radio Electronics, Computer Science, Control» is an international academic peer-reviewed publication. It publishes scientific articles (works that extensively cover a specific topic, idea, question and contain elements of their analysis) and reviews (works containing analysis and reasoned assessment of the author's original or published book) that receive an objective review of leading specialists that evaluate substantially without regard to race, sex, religion, ethnic origin, nationality, or political philosophy of the author(s).<span id="result_box2"><br /></span><strong>Founder and </strong><strong>Publisher</strong><strong>:</strong> <a href="" aria-invalid="true">National University "Zaporizhzhia Polytechnic"</a>. <strong>Country:</strong> Ukraine.<span id="result_box1"><br /></span><strong>ISSN</strong> 1607-3274 (print), ISSN 2313-688X (on-line).<span id="result_box3"><br /></span><strong>Certificate of State Registration:</strong> КВ №24220-14060ПР dated 19.11.2019. The journal is registered by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.<br /><span id="result_box4">By the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine from 17.03.2020 № 409 “On approval of the decision of the Certifying Collegium of the Ministry on the activities of the specialized scientific councils dated 06<br />March 2020”<strong> journal is included to the list of scientific specialized periodicals of Ukraine in category “А” (highest level), where the results of dissertations for Doctor of Science and Doctor of Philosophy may be published</strong>. <span id="result_box26">By the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine from 12.21.2015 № 1328 "On approval of the decision of the Certifying Collegium of the Ministry on the activities of the specialized scientific councils dated 15 December 2015" journal is included in the <strong>List of scientific specialized periodicals of Ukraine</strong>, where the results of dissertations for Doctor of Science and Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematics and Technical Sciences may be published.</span><br />The <strong>journal is included to the Polish List of scientific journals</strong> and peer-reviewed materials from international conferences with assigned number of points (Annex to the announcement of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of Poland from July 31, 2019: Lp. 16981). </span><span id="result_box27"><br /></span><strong> Year of Foundation:</strong> 1999. <strong>Frequency :</strong> 4 times per year (before 2015 - 2 times per year).<span id="result_box6"><br /></span><strong> Volume</strong><strong>:</strong> up to 20 conventional printed sheets. <strong>Format:</strong> 60x84/8. <span id="result_box7"><br /></span><strong> Languages:</strong> English, Russian, Ukrainian.<span id="result_box8"><br /></span><strong> Fields of Science :</strong> Physics and Mathematics, Technical Sciences.<span id="result_box9"><br /></span><strong> Aim: </strong>serve to the academic community principally at publishing topical articles resulting from original research whether theoretical or applied in various aspects of academic endeavor.<strong><br /></strong><strong> Focus:</strong> fresh formulations of problems and new methods of investigation, help for professionals, graduates, engineers, academics and researchers disseminate information on state-of-the-art techniques according to the journal scope.<br /><strong>Scope:</strong> telecommunications and radio electronics, software engineering (including algorithm and programming theory), computer science (mathematical modeling and computer simulation, optimization and operations research, control in technical systems, machine-machine and man-machine interfacing, artificial intelligence, including data mining, pattern recognition, artificial neural and neuro-fuzzy networks, fuzzy logic, swarm intelligence and multiagent systems, hybrid systems), computer engineering (computer hardware, computer networks), information systems and technologies (data structures and bases, knowledge-based and expert systems, data and signal processing methods).<strong><br /></strong> <strong> Journal sections:</strong><span id="result_box10"><br /></span>- radio electronics and telecommunications;<span id="result_box12"><br /></span>- mathematical and computer modelling;<span id="result_box13"><br /></span>- neuroinformatics and intelligent systems;<span id="result_box14"><br /></span>- progressive information technologies;<span id="result_box15"><br /></span>- control in technical systems. <span id="result_box17"><br /></span><strong>Abstracting and Indexing:</strong> <strong>The journal is indexed in <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a></strong> (WoS) scientometric database. The articles, published in the journal, are abstracted in leading international and national <strong>abstractig journals</strong> and <strong>scientometric databases</strong>, and also are placed to the <strong>digital archives</strong> and <strong>libraries</strong> with free on-line access. <span id="result_box21"><br /></span><strong>Editorial board: </strong><em>Editor in chief</em> - S. A. Subbotin, D. Sc., Professor; <em>Deputy Editor in Chief</em> - D. M. Piza, D. Sc., Professor. The <em>members</em> of Editorial Board are listed <a href="" aria-invalid="true">here</a>.<span id="result_box19"><br /></span><strong>Publishing and processing fee:</strong> Articles are published and peer-reviewed <strong>free of charge</strong>.<span id="result_box20"><br /></span><strong> Authors Copyright: </strong>The journal allows the authors to hold the copyright without restrictions and to retain publishing rights without restrictions. The journal allows readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles. The journal allows to reuse and remixing of its content, in accordance with a Creative Commons license СС BY -SA.<span id="result_box21"><br /></span><strong> Authors Responsibility:</strong> Submitting the article to the journal, authors hereby assume full responsibility for the copyright compliance of other individuals and organizations, the accuracy of citations, data and illustrations, nondisclosure of state and industrial secrets, express their consent to transfer for free to the publisher the right to publish, to translate into foreign languages, to store and to distribute the article materials in any form. Authors who have scientific degrees, submitting the article in the journal, thereby giving their consent to free act as reviewers of other authors articles at the request of the journal editor within the established deadlines. The articles submitted to the journal must be original, new and interesting to the reader audience of the journal, have reasonable motivation and aim, be previously unpublished and not be considered for publication in other journals. Articles should not contain trivial and obvious results, make unwarranted conclusions and repeat conclusions of already published studies.<span id="result_box22"><br /></span><strong> Readership: </strong>scientists, university faculties, postgraduate and graduate students, practical specialists.<span id="result_box23"><br /></span><strong> Publicity and Accessing Method :</strong> <strong>Open Access</strong> on-line for full-text publications<span id="result_box24">.</span></p> <p dir="ltr" align="justify"><strong><span style="font-size: small;"> <img src="" alt="" /> <img src="" alt="" /></span></strong></p> IDENTIFICATION OF MARINE EMERGENCY RESPONSE OF ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION OPERATOR 2021-03-31T07:39:12+00:00 P. S. Nosov V. V. Cherniavskyi S. M. Zinchenko I. S. Popovych Ya. А. Nahrybelnyi H. V. Nosova <p>Context. The article introduces an approach for analyzing the reactions of a marine electronic navigation operator as well as automated identification of the likelihood of the negative impact of the human factors in ergatic control systems for sea transport. To meet the target algorithms for providing information referring to the results of human-machine interaction of an operator in marine emergency response situations while managing increasing complexity of navigation operations’ carrying out are put forward.</p> <p>Objective. The approach delivers conversion of the operator’s actions feature space into a logical-geometric one of p-adic systems making the level of the operator’s intellectual activity by using automated means highly likely to be identified. It is sure to contribute to its dynamic prediction for the sake of further marine emergency situations lessening.</p> <p>Method. Within the framework of the mentioned above approach attaining objective as automated identification of the segmented results of human-machine interactions a method for transforming deterministic fragments of an operator’s intellectual activity in terms of p-adic structures is proposed to be used. To cope with such principles as specification, generalization as well as transitions to different perception spaces of the navigation situation by the operator are said to be formally specified. Having been carried out of simulation modeling has turned out to confirm the feasibility of the proposed above approach causing, on the grounds of temporary identifiers, the individual structure of the operator’s reactions to be determined. As a result, the data obtained has delivered the possibility of having typical situations forecasted by using automated multicriteria methods and tools. This issue for its part is said to be spotted as identification of individual indicators of the operator’s reaction dynamics in complex man-machine interaction.</p> <p>Results. In order to have the proposed formal-algorithmic approach approved an experiment was performed using the navigation simulator Navi Trainer 5000 (NTPRO 5000). Automated analysis of experimental server and video data have furnished the means of deterministic operator actions identification in the form of metadata of the trajectory of his reactions within the space of p-adic structures. Thus, the results of modeling involving automated neural networks are sure to facilitate the time series of the intellectual activity of the electronic marine navigation operator to be identified and, therefore, to predict further reactions with a high degree of reliability.</p> <p>Conclusions. The proposed formal research approaches combined with the developed automated means as well as algorithmic and methodological suggestions brought closer to the objectives for solving the problem of automated identification of the negative impact of the human factors of the electronic navigation operator on a whole new level. The efficiency of the proposed approach is noticed to have been approved by the results of automated processing of experimental data and built forecasts.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 П. С. Носов , В. В. Чернявський , С. М. Зінченко , І. С. Попович, Я. А. Нагрибельний , Г. В. Носова COMBINED CRITERION FOR THE CHOICE OF ROUTING BASED ON D2D TECHNOLOGY 2021-03-12T20:35:31+00:00 А. V. Bulashenko <p>Context. 5G network is able to improve existing services and provide a new quality of services. 5G communication networks combine various radio technologies and technologies of fixed communication networks, therefore they are often called heterogeneous, which emphasizes their difference from other networks. One of the main features of such networks is over-density and ultra-low latency. It is the Internet of things that is the basic component of the concept of super dense networks. 3GPP suggests planning 5G networks based on the condition that 1 million devices is 1 km2. Also, ultra-low latency communications networks have a big impact on networking methods, especially for the tactile Internet concept. Such networks require decentralization through 1 ms delay requirements. This requires new approaches to building a new generation of networks, which is the reason for the development of new technologies. One such technology is D2D (device-to-device) technology. This technology allows you to reduce the load on the core of the network due to the use of a significant proportion of the traffic directly between devices and reduces the delay in providing services.</p> <p>Objective. The goal of the work is to create an optimal combined criterion for choosing effective traffic routes in a wireless network based on D2D technology.</p> <p>Method. Many modern works are devoted to the study of D2D technology, but they are not exhaustive in the study of routing in such networks. It is objective enough to study networks built on the basis of the interaction of devices with each other using D2D technology, since such interactions have proven to be effective technologies. This, in turn, involves the development of appropriate routing methods in networks using D2D technology, especially taking into account the property of over-density 5G networks. The paper proposes a criterion for selecting routes, taking into account interference within the channels forming the network nodes. This criterion combines the choice of routes according to the length criteria and the criterion of maximum throughput.</p> <p>Results. A developed combined criterion for selecting traffic routing in a wireless network that uses D2D technology. The results of the study are shown in graphic data.</p> <p>Conclusions. The experiments confirmed the efficiency and effectiveness of the developed method and allow us to recommend this method for practical use as a result of route selection, taking into account those network properties that are more likely to affect the quality of the route.</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 А. В. Булашенко THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE SHAPE AND SIZE OF THE INJECTION CONTACTS OF THE INTEGRATED P-I-N-STRUCTURES ON THE BASE OF USING THE CONFORMAL MAPPING METHOD 2021-03-21T21:32:04+00:00 A. Ya. Bomba I. P. Moroz M. V. Boichura <p>Context. P-i-n-diodes are widely used in a microwave technology to control the electromagnetic field. The field is controlled by the formation of an electron-hole plasma in the region of an intrinsic semiconductor (i-region) under the influence of a control current. The development of control devices on p-i-n-diodes has led to the emergence of integral p-i-n-structures of various types, the characteristics of which (for example, switching speed, switched power level, etc.) exceed the similar characteristics of volume diodes. The properties of p-i-n-structures are determined by a number of processes: the diffusion-drift charge transfer process, the recombination-generation, thermal, injection, and the so on. Obviously, these processes should be taken into account (are displayed) in the mathematical model of the computer-aided design system for control devices of a microwave systems. Integrated process accounting leads to the formulation of complex tasks. One of them is the task of optimizing the shape, geometric dimensions and placement of the injected contacts (an active region).</p> <p>Objective. The goal of the work is the development of a mathematical model and the corresponding software of the process of a microwave waves interaction with electron-hole plasma in an active region of the surface-oriented integral p-i-n-structures with ribbon-type freeform contacts to optimize an active region shape and its geometric dimensions.</p> <p>Method. The main idea of the developed algorithm is to use the conformal mapping method to bring the physical domain of the problem to canonical form, followed by solving internal boundary value problems in this area for the ambipolar diffusion equation and the wave equation using numerical-analytical methods (the finite difference method; partial domains method using projection boundary conditions similar to the Galerkin method). The optimization algorithm is based on a phased solution of the following problems (the shape and geometric dimensions of the active region are specified at each stage): a computational grid of nodes for the physical regions of the problem is being found, in an active region the carriers concentration distribution is being determined and the energy transmitted coefficient in the system under study is being calculated, which is used in the proposed optimization functional. The extreme values of the functional are found by the uniform search method.</p> <p>Results. The proposed mathematical model and the corresponding algorithm for optimizing the shape and geometric dimensions of the active region (i-region) of integrated surface-oriented p-i-n-structures expands the tool base for the design of semiconductor circuits of microwave frequencies (for example, similar to CST MICROWAVE STUDIO).</p> <p>Conclusions. An algorithm has been developed to optimize the shape and geometrical dimensions of the active region of integrated surface-oriented p-i-n-structures with in-depth contacts intended for switching millimeter-wave electromagnetic signals. The universality of the algorithm is ensured by applying the method of conformal transformations of spatial domains. The example of the application of the proposed algorithm to search for the optimal sizes of wedge-shaped (in cross-section) contacts of silicon structures is considered.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 А. Я. Бомба , І. П. Мороз , М. В. Бойчура APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS FOR THE KOLMOGOROV-WIENER FILTER WEIGHT FUNCTION FOR CONTINUOUS FRACTIONAL GAUSSIAN NOISE 2021-03-23T14:41:40+00:00 V. N. Gorev A. Yu. Gusev V. I. Korniienko <p>Context. We consider the Kolmogorov-Wiener filter for forecasting of telecommunication traffic in the framework of a continuous fractional Gaussian noise model.</p> <p>Objective. The aim of the work is to obtain the filter weight function as an approximate solution of the corresponding WienerHopf integral equation. Also the aim of the work is to show the convergence of the proposed method of solution of the corresponding equation.</p> <p>Method. The Wiener-Hopf integral equation for the filter weight function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. We use the truncated polynomial expansion method in order to obtain an approximate solution of the corresponding equation. A set of Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind is used.</p> <p>Results. We obtained approximate solutions for the Kolmogorov-Wiener filter weight function for forecasting of continuous fractional Gaussian noise. The solutions are obtained in the approximations of different number of polynomials; the results are obtained up to the nineteen-polynomial approximation. It is shown that the proposed method is convergent for the problem under consideration, i.e. the accuracy of the coincidence of the left-hand and right-hand sides of the integral equation increases with the number of polynomials. Such convergence takes place due to the fact that the correlation function of continuous fractional Gaussian noise, which is the kernel of the corresponding integral equation, is a positively-defined function.</p> <p>Conclusions. The Kolmogorov-Wiener filter weight function for forecasting of continuous fractional Gaussian noise is obtained as an approximate solution of the corresponding Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The proposed truncated polynomial expansion method is convergent for the problem under consideration. As is known, one of the simplest telecommunication traffic models is the model of continuous fractional Gaussian noise, so the results of the paper may be useful for telecommunication traffic forecast.</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 В. М. Горєв , О. Ю. Гусєв , В. І. Корнієнко SELF-TIMED LOOK UP TABLE FOR ULAs AND FPGAs 2021-03-23T20:25:54+00:00 S. F. Tyurin A. Yu. Skornyakova Y. A. Stepchenkov Y. G. Diachenko <p>Context. Self-Timed Circuits, proposed by D. Muller on the rise of the digital era, continues to excite researchers’ minds. These circuits started with the task of improving performance by taking into account real delays. Then Self-Timed Circuits have moved into the field of green computing. At last, they are currently positioned mainly in the field of fault tolerance. There is much redundancy in Self-Timed Circuits. It is believed that Self-Timed Circuits approaches will be in demand in the nano-circuitry when a synchronous approach becomes impossible. Strictly Self-Timed Circuits check transition process completion for each gate’s output. For this, they use so-called D. Muller elements (C-elements, hysteresis flip-flops, G-flip-flops). Usually, Self-Timed Circuits are designed on Uncommitted Logic Array. Now an extensive base of Uncommitted Logic Array Self-Timed gates exists. It is believed that SelfTimed Circuits are not compatible with FPGA technology. However, attempts to create self-timed FPGAs do not stop. The article proposes a Self-Timed Lookup Table for the Self-Timed Uncommitted Logic Array and the Self-Timed FPGA, carried out either by constants or utilizing additional memory cells. Authors proposed 1,2 – Self-Timed Lookup Table and described simulation results.</p> <p>Objective. The work’s goal is the analysis and design of the Strictly Self-Timed universal logic element based on Uncommitted Logic Array cells and pass-transistors circuits.</p> <p>Methods. Analysis and synthesis of the Strictly Self-Timed circuits with Boolean algebra. Simulation of the proposed element in the CAD “ARC”, TRANAL program, system NI Multisim by National Instruments Electronics Workbench Group, and layout design by Microwind. The reliability theory and reliability calculations in PTC Mathcad.</p> <p>Results. Authors designed, analyzed, and proved the Self-Timed Lookup Table’s workability for the Uncommitted Logic Arrays and FPGAs. Layouts of the novel logic gates are ready for manufacturing.</p> <p>Conclusions. The conducted studies allow us to use proposed circuits in perspective digital devices.</p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 С. Ф. Тюрин , А. Ю. Скорнякова , Ю. А. Степченков, Ю. Г. Дьяченко ONLINE FUZZY CLUSTERING OF INCOMPLETE DATA USING CREDIBILISTIC APPROACH AND SIMILARITY MEASURE OF SPECIAL TYPE 2021-03-27T08:52:46+00:00 Ye. V. Bodyanskiy A. Yu. Shafronenko I. N. Klymova <p>Context. In most clustering (classification without a teacher) tasks associated with real data processing, the initial information is usually distorted by abnormal outliers (noise) and gaps. It is clear that “classical” methods of artificial intelligence (both batch and online) are ineffective in this situation.The goal of the paper is to propose the procedure of fuzzy clustering of incomplete data using credibilistic approach and similarity measure of special type.</p> <p>Objective. The goal of the work is credibilistic fuzzy clustering of distorted data, using of credibility theory.</p> <p>Method. The procedure of fuzzy clustering of incomplete data using credibilistic approach and similarity measure of special type based on the use of both robust goal functions of a special type and similarity measures, insensitive to outliers and designed to work both in batch and its recurrent online version designed to solve Data Stream Mining problems when data are fed to processing sequentially in real time.</p> <p>Results. The introduced methods are simple in numerical implementation and are free from the drawbacks inherent in traditional methods of probabilistic and possibilistic fuzzy clustering data distorted by abnormal outliers (noise) and gaps.</p> <p>Conclusions. The conducted experiments have confirmed the effectiveness of proposed methods of credibilistic fuzzy clustering of distorted data operability and allow recommending it for use in practice for solving the problems of automatic clusterization of distorted data. The proposed method is intended for use in hybrid systems of computational intelligence and, above all, in the problems of learning artificial neural networks, neuro-fuzzy systems, as well as in the problems of clustering and classification.</p> 2021-03-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Є. В. Бодянський , А. Ю. Шафроненко , І. М. Клімова DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD TO IDENTIFY THE COMPUTER SYSTEM STATE BASED ON THE «ISOLATION FOREST» ALGORITHM 2021-03-27T11:07:18+00:00 S. Y. Gavrylenko I. V. Sheverdin <p>Context. The problem of identification a computer system state was investigated. The object of the research is the identification process of the computer system state. The subject of the research is computer system state identifying means and methods.</p> <p>Objective. The purpose of the work is to develop a method for identifying the computer system state.</p> <p>Method. The method has been developed for identifying a computer system state based on integrated use the procedure for grouping unlabeled initial data and using machine learning technology based on the «Isolation Forest» algorithm, which provides to identify a computer system state and to distinguished the process name that initiated the abnormal state. Therefore, for collecting statistical data in the form of operating system functioning events, data method has been proposed and developed along with software. The analysis of functioning events has been performed. The result of analysis showed that the most informative are read and write operations. To set up a single dataset, read and write operations compared with the process name and combined into one array of event groups, so that it is possible to single out the process that causes the abnormal state of the computer system. As a result of the research, the «Isolation Forest» algorithm has been selected as a component of the method for identifying the computer system state. An accuracy and efficiency assessment of the developed method of identifying a computer system state has been carried out.</p> <p>Results. The developed method is implemented and investigated when solving the problem of identifying anomalies in the functioning of computer systems.</p> <p>Conclusions. The experiments carried out confirmed the efficiency of the proposed method. It allows us recommended the method for practical use in order to improve efficiency of identifying the computer system state and use it as an express method. Areas for further research may lie in the creation of the ensemble of fuzzy trees based on the proposed method and optimization of this software implementation.</p> 2021-03-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 С. Ю. Гавриленко , І. В. Шевердін IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INDICATOR SYSTEM IN MODELING OF COMPLEX TECHNICAL SYSTEMS 2021-03-27T11:46:24+00:00 S. D. Leoshchenko S. A. Subbotin A. O. Oliinyk O. E. Narivs’kiy <p>Context. The problem of determining the optimal topology of a neuromodel, which is characterized by a high level of logical transparency in modeling complex technical systems, is considered. The object of research is the process of applying an indicator system to simplify and select the topology of neuromodels.</p> <p>Objective of the work is to develop and use a system of indicators to determine the level of complexity of the modeling problem and gradually select the optimal logically transparent topology of the neuromodel.</p> <p>Method. A method is proposed for selecting an optimal, logically transparent neural network topology for modeling complex technical systems using a system of corresponding indicators. At the beginning, the method determines the overall level of complexity of the modeling task and, using the obtained estimate, determines the method for further optimization of the neuromodel. Then, using Task data and input data characteristics, the method allows to obtain the most optimal structure of the neural model for further modeling of the system. The method reduces trainingvtime and increases the level of logical transparency of neuromodels, which significantly expands the practical use of such models, without using neuroevolution methods, which may not be justified by resource-intensive tasks.</p> <p>Results. The developed method is implemented and investigated in solving the problem of modeling the dynamics of pitting processes of steel alloys. Using the developed method made it possible to reduce the training time of the model by 22%, depending on the computing resources used. The method also increased the level of logical transparency of the model by reducing the number of computing nodes by 50%, which also indicates faster and more efficient use of resources.</p> <p>Conclusions. The conducted experiments confirmed the operability of the proposed mathematical support and allow us to recommend it for use in practice in the design of topologies of neuromodels for further solving modeling, diagnosis and evaluation problems. Prospects for further research may consist in the development of methods for structural optimization of previously synthesized models and the development of new methods for feature selection.</p> 2021-03-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 С. Д. Леощенко , С. О. Субботін , А. О. Олійник , О. Е. Нарівський METHOD OF SPECTRAL CLUSTERING OF PAYMENTS AND RAW MATERIALS SUPPLY FOR THE COMPLIANCE AUDIT PLANNING 2021-03-27T13:22:55+00:00 Т. V. Neskorodieva E. E. Fedorov <p>Context. The analytical procedures used in the audit are currently based on data mining techniques. The work solves the problem of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of analytical audit procedures by clustering based on spectral decomposition. The object of the research is the process of auditing the compliance of payment and supply sequences for raw materials.</p> <p>Objective. The aim of the work is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the audit due to the method of spectral clustering of sequences of payment and supply of raw materials while automating procedures for checking their compliance.</p> <p>Method. The vectors of features are generated for the objects of the sequences of payment and supply of raw materials, which are then used in the proposed method. The created method improves the traditional spectral clustering method by automatically determining the number of clusters based on the explained and sample variance rule; automatic determination of the scale parameter based on local scaling (the rule of K-nearest neighbors is used); resistance to noise and random outliers by replacing the k-means method with a modified PAM method, i.e. replacing centroid clustering with medoid clustering. As in the traditional approach, the data can be sparse, and the clusters can have different shapes and sizes. The characteristics of evaluating the quality of spectral clustering are selected.</p> <p>Results. The proposed spectral clustering method was implemented in the MATLAB package. The results obtained made it possible to study the dependence of the parameter values on the quality of clustering.</p> <p>Conclusions. The experiments carried out have confirmed the efficiency of the proposed method and allow us to recommend it for practical use in solving audit problems. Prospects for further research may lie in the creation of intelligent parallel and distributed computer systems for general and special purposes, which use the proposed method for segmentation, machine learning and pattern recognition tasks.</p> 2021-03-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Т. В. Нескородєва , Є. Є. Федоров DEEP REINFORCEMENT LEARNING WITH SPARSE DISTRIBUTED MEMORY FOR “WATER WORLD” PROBLEM SOLVING 2021-03-28T20:03:08+00:00 M. A. Novotarskyi S. G. Stirenko Y. G. Gordienko V. A. Kuzmych <p>Context. Machine learning is one of the actively developing areas of data processing. Reinforcement learning is a class of machine learning methods where the problem involves mapping the sequence of environmental states to agent’s actions. Significant progress in this area has been achieved using DQN-algorithms, which became one of the first classes of stable algorithms for learning using deep neural networks. The main disadvantage of this approach is the rapid growth of RAM in real-world tasks. The approach proposed in this paper can partially solve this problem.</p> <p>Objective. The aim is to develop a method of forming the structure and nature of access to the sparse distributed memory with increased information content to improve reinforcement learning without additional memory.</p> <p>Method. A method of forming the structure and modification of sparse distributed memory for storing previous transitions of the actor in the form of prototypes is proposed. The method allows increasing the informativeness of the stored data and, as a result, to improve the process of creating a model of the studied process by intensifying the learning of the deep neural network. Increasing the informativeness of the stored data is the result of this sequence of actions. First, we compare the new transition and the last saved transition. To perform this comparison, this method introduces a rate estimate for the distance between transitions. If the distance between the new transition and the last saved transition is smaller than the specified threshold, the new transition is written in place of the previous one without increasing the amount of memory. Otherwise, we create a new prototype in memory while deleting the prototype that has been stored in memory the longest.</p> <p>Results. The work of the proposed method was studied during the solution of the popular “Water World” test problem. The results showed a 1.5-times increase in the actor’s survival time in a hostile environment. This result was achieved by increasing the informativeness of the stored data without increasing the amount of RAM.</p> <p>Conclusions. The proposed method of forming and modifying the structure of sparse distributed memory allowed to increase the informativeness of the stored data. As a result of this approach, improved reinforcement learning parameters on the example of the “Water World” problem by increasing the accuracy of the model of the physical process represented by a deep neural network.</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 М. А. Новотарський , С. Г. Стіренко , Ю. Г. Гордієнко , В. А. Кузьмич DELAY TOLERANT NETWORKING SUPPORT FOR CREATION HIGH-ACCURACY MAGNETIC FIELD MAPS 2021-03-29T06:08:43+00:00 G. M. Babeniuk <p>Context. The main purpose of Correlation Extremal Navigation system is finding coordinates in case of absence of Global Positioning System signal and as a result high-accuracy maps as the main source of information for finding coordinates are very important. Magnetic field map as the main source of information can include errors values, as an example: not good enough equipment or human factor can cause error value of measurements.</p> <p>Objective. In order to create high-accuracy maps given work proposes to improve the process of creating magnetic field maps. The given work represents delay tolerant networking as an additional approach for data transmission between magnetic observatory and magnetic station and its improvement.</p> <p>Method. Improved Dijkstra’s algorithm together with Ford-Fulkerson’s algorithm for finding path with minimum capacity losses, earliest delivery time and maximum bit rate in case of overlapping contacts should be represented in the given work because nowadays, delay tolerant networking routing protocols do not take into account the overlap factor and resulting capacity losses and it leads to big problems</p> <p>Results. For the first time will be presented algorithm that chooses the route that guarantees the minimum of capacity losses, earliest delivery time and maximum bit rate in the delay tolerant networking with overlapping contacts and increases the probability of successful data transmission between magnetic stations and magnetic observatories.</p> <p>Conclusions. In order to perform high-accuracy measurement of magnetic field group of people allocate their equipment for magnetic field measurement in remote areas in order to avoid the influence of environment on measurements of magnetometer. Since magnitude of magnetic field can vary dependent on temperature, proximity to the ocean, latitude (diurnal variation of magnetic field) and magnetic storms magnetic station from time to time adjusts its measurements with a help of reference values of magnetic field (magnetic station sends request for reference values to magnetic observatory). The problem of the given approach is that remote areas usually are not covered by network (no Internet) and as a result the adjustment of measurements is impossible. In order to make adjustment of measurements possible and as a result improve accuracy of magnetic maps given work proposed the usage of Delay Tolerant Networking that delivers internet access to different areas around the world and represented its improvement to make its approach even better.The results are published for the first time.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Г. М. Бабенюк IMPROVING THE FUNCTIONING RELIABILITY OF THE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ELEMENTS, USING BUILT-IN DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS 2021-03-29T20:21:47+00:00 L. A. Kleiman V. I. Freyman <p>Context. In the modern world, information management systems have become widespread. This make it possible to automate the technological processes of enterprises of various sizes. Many information management systems include wireless and autonomous elements. Autonomy, in this case, means the ability of the system elements to function for a certain time without additional energy supply. In this regard, such a parameter of operational reliability as the battery life of a system element becomes one of the most important. One of the main tools for improving the reliability and fault tolerance of information management system elements – is the use of a modern diagnostic system.</p> <p>Objective. The aim of the work is to develop a method for increasing the reliability of the functioning of autonomous elements of information management systems. It includes the creation of a model of an information management system and an algorithm for reasonable redistribution of diagnostic functions, as well as a software implementation of the developed algorithm, which confirms its higher reliability indicators in comparison with other algorithms.</p> <p>Methods. The basic model was the Preparata-Metz-Chen model. On its basis, a new model of the system was built, including the structural and logical description of the elements and the determination of the way of their interaction. The elements were classified by the degree of criticality of the functions performed in the system. On the basis of the developed model and description of the elements, an algorithm was developed for the reasonable redistribution of the diagnostic load, which made it possible to reduce the average energy consumption of the elements and thereby improve the reliability indicators. A software implementation of the developed algorithm was created, which allows to numerically evaluate its advantages. The developed and existing algorithms were compared.</p> <p>Results. A model of information management system has been developed. In such a system, it is proposed to use an integrated test diagnostics system. This diagnostic system implements algorithms for redistributing the diagnostic load. To determine the importance of the characteristics taken into account, a linear criterion was chosen, as the most studied and fastest in application. A software model, that implements the developed algorithm and makes it possible to compare it with existing algorithms, has been developed. A study of the software model with various parameters was carried out and, based on the results of the software simulation, conclusions were drawn about the possibilities of improving the algorithm and directions for further scientific research were formulated.</p> <p>Conclusions. The usage of the developed algorithm makes it possible to increase such a characteristic of the reliability of the elements of the information and control system as the mean time of failure-free operation (mean time between failures) by increasing the operating time of autonomous elements without recharging. When carrying out software modeling of the developed and existing algorithms, the advantages of the first were confirmed, and theoretical possibilities for its improvement were formulated.</p> 2021-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Л. А. Клейман , В. І. Фрейман GAME MODEL OF ONTOLOGICAL PROJECT SUPPORT 2021-03-30T20:55:54+00:00 P. Kravets V. Lytvyn V. Vysotska <p>Context. In today’s information society with advanced telecommunications through mobile devices and computer networks, it is important to form a variety of virtual organizations and communities. Such virtual associations of people by professional or other interests are designed to quickly solve various tasks: to perform project tasks, create startups to attract investors, network marketing, distance learning, solving complex problems in science, economics and public administration , construction of various Internet services, discussion of political and social processes, etc.</p> <p>Objective of the study is to develop an adaptive Markov recurrent method based on the stochastic approximation of the modified condition of complementary non-rigidity, valid at Nash equilibrium points for solving the problem of game coverage of projects.</p> <p>Method. In this work the multiagent game model for formation of virtual teams of executors of projects on the basis of libraries of subject ontologies is developed. The competencies and abilities of agents required to carry out projects are specified by sets of ontologies. Intelligent agents randomly, simultaneously and independently choose one of the projects at discrete times. Agents who have chosen the same project determine the current composition of the team of its executors. For agents’ teams, a current penalty is calculated for insufficient coverage of competencies by the combined capabilities of agents. This penalty is used to adaptively recalculate mixed player strategies. The probabilities of selecting those teams whose current composition has led to a reduction in the fine for non-coverage of ontologies are increasing. During the repetitive stochastic game, agents will form vectors of mixed strategies that will minimize average penalties for non-coverage of projects.</p> <p>Results. For solve the problem of game coverage of projects, an adaptive Markov recurrent method based on the stochastic approximation of the modified condition of complementary non-rigidity, valid at Nash equilibrium points, was developed.</p> <p>Conclusions. Computer simulation confirmed the possibility of using the stochastic game model to form teams of project executors with the necessary ontological support in conditions of uncertainty. The convergence of the game method is ensured by compliance with the fundamental conditions and limitations of stochastic optimization. The reliability of experimental studies is confirmed by the repeatability of the results obtained for different sequences of random variables.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 П. О. Кравець , В. В. Литвин , В. А. Висоцька INFLUENCE OF DIGITAL IMAGES PRELIMINARY NOISING ON STATISTICAL STEGDETECTORS PERFORMANCE 2021-03-31T06:24:05+00:00 D. O. Progonov <p>Context. The problem of sensitive information protection during data transmission in communication systems was considered. The case of reliable detection of stego images formed according to advanced embedding methods was investigated. The object of research is digital images steganalysis of adaptive steganographic methods.</p> <p>Objective. The goal of the work is performance analysis of statistical stegdetectors for adaptive embedding methods in case of preliminary noising of analyzed image with thermal and shot noises.</p> <p>Method. The image pre-processing (calibration) method was proposed for improving stego-to-cover ratio for state-of-the-art adaptive embedding methods HUGO, MG and MiPOD. The method is aimed at amplifying negligible changes of cover image caused by message hiding with usage of Gaussian and Poisson noises. The former one is related to influence the thermal noise of chargecoupled device (CCD) based image sensor during data acquisition. The latter one is related to shot noise that originates from stochastic process of electron emission by photons hitting of CCD elements. During the research, parameters of thermal noise were estimated with two-dimensional Wiener filter, while sliding window of size 5·5 pixels was used for parameters evaluation for shot noise.</p> <p>Results. The dependencies of detection error on cover image payload for advance HUGO, MG and MiPOD embedding methods were obtained. The results were presented for the case of image pre-noising with both Gaussian and Poisson noises, and varying of feature pre-processing methods.</p> <p>Conclusions. The conducted experiments confirmed effectiveness of proposed approach for image calibration with Poisson noise. Obtained results allow us to recommend linearly transformed features to be used for improving stegdetector performance by natural image processing. The prospects for further research may include investigation usage of special noises, such as fractal noises, for improving stego-to-cover ratio for advanced embedding methods.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 D. O. Progonov RECONFIGURABLE COMPUTING MODULAR SYSTEM 2021-03-31T07:07:57+00:00 S. S. Shevelev <p>Context. Modern general purpose computers are capable of implementing any algorithm, but when solving certain problems in terms of processing speed they cannot compete with specialized computing modules. Specialized devices have high performance, effectively solve the problems of processing arrays, artificial intelligence tasks, and are used as control devices. The use of specialized microprocessor modules that implement the processing of character strings, logical and numerical values, represented as integers and real numbers, makes it possible to increase the speed of performing arithmetic operations by using parallelism in data processing.</p> <p>Objective. To develop principles for constructing microprocessor modules for a modular computing system with a reconfigurable structure, an arithmetic-symbolic processor, specialized computing devices, switching systems capable of configuring microprocessors and specialized computing modules into a multi-pipeline structure to increase the speed of performing arithmetic and logical operations, high-speed design algorithms specialized processors-accelerators of symbol processing. To develop algorithms, structural and functional diagrams of specialized mathematical modules that perform arithmetic operations in direct codes on neural-like elements and systems for decentralized control of the operation of blocks.</p> <p>Method. An information graph of the computational process of a modular system with a reconstructed structure has been built. Structural and functional diagrams, algorithms that implement the construction of specialized modules for performing arithmetic and logical operations, search operations and functions for replacing occurrences in processed words have been developed. Software has been developed for simulating the operation of an arithmetic-symbolic processor, specialized computing modules, and switching systems.</p> <p>Results. A block diagram of a reconfigurable computing modular system has been developed, which consists of compatible functional modules, it is capable of static and dynamic reconfiguration, has a parallel structure for connecting the processor and computing modules through the use of interface channels. The system consists of an arithmetic-symbolic processor, specialized computing modules and switching systems, performs specific tasks of symbolic information processing, arithmetic and logical operations.</p> <p>Conclusions. The architecture of reconfigurable computing systems can change dynamically during their operation. It becomes possible to adapt the architecture of a computing system to the structure of the problem being solved, to create problem-oriented computers, the structure of which corresponds to the structure of the problem being solved. As the main computing element in reconfigurable computing systems, not universal microprocessors are used, but programmable logic integrated circuits, which are combined using high-speed interfaces into a single computing field. Reconfigurable multipipeline computing systems based on fields are an effective tool for solving streaming information processing and control problems.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 С. С. Шевелев MATHEMATICAL MODELS PRODUCTIVITY OF CLUSTER SYSTEM BASED ON RASPBERRY PI 3B+ 2021-03-25T16:35:22+00:00 S. M. Babchuk Т. V. Humeniuk I. T. Romaniv <p>Context. High-performance computing systems are needed to solve many scientific problems and to work with complex applied problems. Previously, real parallel data processing was supported only by supercomputers, which are very limited and difficult to access. Currently, one way to solve this problem is to build small, cheap clusters based on single-board computers Raspberry Pi.</p> <p>Objective. The goal of the work is the creation of a complex criterion for the efficiency of the cluster system, which could properly characterize the operation of such a system and find the dependences of the performance of the cluster system based on Raspberry Pi 3B+ on the number of boards in it with different cooling systems.</p> <p>Method. It is offered to apply in the analysis of small cluster computer systems the complex criterion of efficiency of work of cluster system which will consider the general productivity of cluster computer system, productivity of one computing element in cluster computer system, electricity consumption by cluster system, electricity consumption per one computing element, the cost of calculating 1 Gflops cluster computer system, the total cost of the cluster computer system.</p> <p>Results. The developed complex criterion of cluster system efficiency was used to create an experimental cluster system based on single-board computers Raspberry Pi 3B+. Mathematical models of the dependence of the performance of a small cluster system based on single-board computers Raspberry Pi 3B+ depending on the number of boards in it with different cooling systems have also been developed.</p> <p>Conclusions. The conducted experiments confirmed the expediency of using the developed complex criterion of efficiency of the cluster system and allow to recommend it for use in practice when creating small cluster systems. Prospects for further research are to determine the weights of the constituent elements of the complex criterion of efficiency of the cluster system, as well as in the experimental study of the proposed weights.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 С. М. Бабчук , Т. В. Гуменюк , І. Т. Романів APPLICATION OF THE “JUMPING FROGS” ALGORITHM FOR RESEARCH AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS 2021-03-26T16:36:15+00:00 N. D. Koshevoy V. V. Muratov A. L. Kirichenko S. A. Borisenko <p>Context. An application of the method of a “jumping frogs” search algorithm to construct optimal experiment plans for cost (time) in the study of technological processes and systems that allow the implementation of an active experiment on them is proposed.</p> <p>The object of study are optimization methods for cost (time) costs of experimental designs, based on the application of a “jumping frogs” search algorithm.</p> <p>Objective. To obtain optimization results by optimizing the search of a “jumping frogs” search algorithm for the cost (time) costs of plans for a full factorial experiment.</p> <p>Method. A method is proposed for constructing a cost-effective (time) implementation of an experiment planning matrix using algorithms for searching for “jumping frogs”. At the beginning, the number of factors and the cost of transitions for each factor level are entered. Then, taking into account the entered data, the initial experiment planning matrix is formed. Then, taking into account the entered data, the initial matrix of experiment planning is formed. The “jumping frogs” method determines the “successful frog” by the lowest cost of transitions between levels for each of the factors. After that, the permutations of the “frogs” are performed. The “frog” strives for the most “successful” and, provided it stays close, remains in the location. Then the gain is calculated in comparison with the initial cost (time) of the experiment.</p> <p>Results. Software has been developed that implements the proposed method, which was used to conduct computational experiments to study the properties of these methods in the study of technological processes and systems that allow the implementation of an active experiment on them. The experimental designs that are optimal in terms of cost (time) are obtained, and the winnings in the optimization results are compared with the initial cost of the experiment. A comparative analysis of optimization methods for the cost (time) costs of plans for a full factorial experiment is carried out.</p> <p>Conclusions. The conducted experiments confirmed the operability of the proposed method and the software that implements it, and also allows us to recommend it for practical use in constructing optimal experiment planning matrices.</p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 М. Д. Кошовий , В. В. Муратов , О. Л. Кириченко , С. А. Борісенко СOMPUTER MODELING PARAMETERS OF TECHNOGENIC EMERGENCY SITUATIONS ON ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE MEGAPOLIS 2021-03-26T19:44:53+00:00 M. V. Novozhylova V. A. Andronov R. S. Melezhik <p>Context. The urgency of the research is to develop methods for analyzing and processing space-time information, namely the set of data distributed both in space and time and creating on this basis a computer probabilistic model of the process of predicting manmade emergencies on city engineering infrastructure. The spatio-temporal nature of data series causes additional requirements for the identification procedures of the mathematical model of a series, therefore, the number of approaches identifying its structure and construction of a series model has been proposed.</p> <p>Objective is methodical and software implementation of a computer model of the space-time series being intended to predict the future values of locations and times of man-made emergencies on the engineering infrastructure of the metropolis and increase decision-making efficiency.</p> <p>Method. A projection approach providing independent determination of random spatial parameters defining location of emergency units on engineering infrastructure as a sequence of two one-dimensional uniform distributions and describing time distribution of moments of accidents as non-stationary Poisson distribution has been developed. Proposed is an integrated approach which includes the construction of generator points, the power of which (characteristic of the accident complexity) based on the implementation of the comparative statics approach with so-called cumulative effect within a certain time. A relaxation approach based on the reduction of a two-dimensional simulation model of determining the city of possible emergency location to a set of independent onedimensional non-stationary (including stationary) distributions to generate the time of occurrence has been constructed. Formalization of the space-time field, procedures of information support of the process of forecasting the parameters of a possible emergency, typification of initial data for numerical experiments on the implementation of methods for forecasting the parameters of a possible emergency on the example of water supply and sewerage network of utility company Kharkivvodokal, city Kharkiv have been developed.</p> <p>Results. A dual methodology to determine the simulation model parameters of the space-time series, which contains both projection and integral approaches, as well as a combined method − relaxation approach, have been proposed. Numerical experiments based on the constructed model were performed. The model being considered is the theoretical basis to construct the forecast using a large amount of historical data.</p> <p>Conclusions. The method to predict the parameters of space-time series considering the nonstationarity property of the time component distribution has been further developed. Using the proposed computer simulation tools allows to increase the accuracy of the forecast of the location, time of occurrence and severity of a possible accident on the engineering infrastructure of the metropolis.&nbsp;</p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 М. В. Новожилова , В. А. Андронов , Р. С. Мележик UNIVERSAL METHOD FOR COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF THRESHOLD PHENOMENON IN THE NONSTEADY BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES 2021-03-26T20:38:09+00:00 A. Yu. Perevaryukha <p>Context. In modern conditions occur abrupt changes in ecosystems. The species composition of Caspian Sea is changing rapidly. The dynamics of populations acquires an extreme character with the development of rapid invasions. The mathematical description of scale transformations requires new modeling methods. Complicated population regimes of changes have features of the threshold phenomenon in process of its development.</p> <p>Objective. We set the goal of computational modeling of practically important scenarios – groups of situations that relate to extreme and transitional dynamics of ecosystems, like outbreaks at the onset of dangerous invasions. We are developing a method that, on the basis of the survival model of generations, will conduct a description of sudden transitions to rapid but limited outbreak of numbers or, on contrary, a collapse of stocks like Atlantic cod in 1992 or Peruan anchovy Engraulis ringens in 1985. The purpose of our modeling is to improve the accuracy of forecasts of the population size when experts are estimates a rational strategy for the exploitation of biological resources.</p> <p>Method. Situations of abrupt but short-term changes in population processes cannot be calculated by traditional mathematical models and expressed in terms of asymptotic dynamics – closed limit trajectory sets. The basis of the idea of the method proposed by us is the formalization of nonlinear efficiency of reproduction, which changes in a threshold manner only in strictly defined environmental conditions. We use continuous-discrete time in the model for early ontognosis of the cod fish and insect pests. The method with triggers allows us to take into account in simulation experiments logic and motivation of making decisions by experts, people who manage the strategy of exploiting biological resources. Models assess variability for development of situations</p> <p>Results. We have implemented new method of bounded trigger functionals into hybrid system of the equations, that acting in selected specific states of biosystems. Analysis of new model scenarios with modifications of functionals in the basic hybrid system for extreme situations in fish and insect pests is carried out.</p> <p>Conclusions. We consider the method to be universal, since selection of the functional can be adapted to a wide class of models using differential equations on a fixed interval.</p> 2021-03-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A. Yu. Perevaryukha MATHEMATICAL DELAY MODEL BASED ON SYSTEMS WITH HYPERERLANGIAN AND ERLANGIAN DISTRIBUTIONS 2021-03-27T07:26:48+00:00 V. N. Tarasov <p>Context. Studies of G/G/1 systems in queuing theory are relevant because such systems are of interest for analyzing the delay of data transmission systems. At the same time, it is impossible to obtain solutions for the delay in the final form in the general case for arbitrary laws of distribution of the input flow and service time. Therefore, it is important to study such systems for particular cases of input distributions. We consider the problem of deriving a solution for the average queue delay in a closed form for two systems with ordinary and shifted hypererlangian and erlangian input distributions.</p> <p>Objective. Obtaining a solution for the main characteristic of the system – the average delay of requests in the queue for two queuing systems of the G/G/1 type with ordinary and with shifted hypererlangian and erlangian input distributions.</p> <p>Method. To solve this problem, we used the classical method of spectral decomposition of the solution of the Lindley integral equation. This method allows to obtaining a solution for the average delay for systems under consideration in a closed form. The method of spectral decomposition of the solution of the Lindley integral equation plays an important role in the theory of systems G/G/1. For the practical application of the results obtained, the well-known method of moments of probability theory is used.</p> <p>Results. For the first time, spectral expansions of the solution of the integral Lindley equation for two systems are obtained, with the help of which calculation formulas for the average delay in a queue in a closed form are derived. Thus, mathematical models of queuing delay for these systems have been built.</p> <p>Conclusions. These formulas expand and supplement the known queuing theory formulas for the average delay G/G/1 systems with arbitrary laws distributions of input flow and service time. This approach allows us to calculate the average delay for these systems in mathematical packages for a wide range of traffic parameters. In addition to the average delay, such an approach makes it possible to determine also moments of higher orders of waiting time. Given the fact that the packet delay variation (jitter) in telecommunications is defined as the spread of the delay from its average value, the jitter can be determined through the variance of the delay.</p> 2021-03-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 В. Н. Тарасов